Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) is a fluorine-based chemical compound. It is a colourless gas, a fuming liquid, and a dissolvable solid in water. Even at low concentrations, hydrogen fluoride gas can irritate the eyes, nose, and lungs. Hydrogen fluoride can be fatal when inhaled at high concentrations or combined with skin contact, resulting in arrhythmia and pulmonary oedema.
Hydrogen Fluoride was discovered by the French chemist Edmond Frémy in the middle of the nineteenth century, while HF solutions had been known and used for at least a century before that. Nowadays, fluorite (calcium fluoride) is mined and processed to produce Hydrogen Fluoride gas using sulfuric acid. The mineral apatite, which includes fluoride ions and phosphate, is a significant source of HF produced as a byproduct of phosphate fertiliser production.
Applications used in